Kuala Baram Tree Plantation FPMU
(Version 04)


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Figure 1: Location of Kuala Baram Tree Plantation FPMU
(Click here to enlarge the image)

Kuala Baram Tree Plantation Forest Plantation Management Unit (FPMU) is located at Kuala Baram, Industrial estate area which is managed by Shin Yang Plywood Sdn. Bhd. (SYF) since end of year 2009. The FPMU is located between latitudes 4°32.18'N and 4°34.52'N and longitudes 114°02.26'E to 114°05.45'E.

The three lots sited along the northern bank of the area may be collectively referred to as the "Northern Block". Meanwhile, the other four smaller lots sited along the southern bank of the Areas may be referred to as the "Southern Block". The major township, Miri, is found near the FPMU.

Gross areas of the FPMU is 1007.1 ha. About 83% from the total FPMU area is plantable area, while the balance of 17% is reserved for buffer zone and conservation area

Shin Yang Kuala Baram FPMU undertook and went through the Stage 1 Audit against MC&I (Forest Plantation) in April 2013 under the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) scheme.A certificate for forest management assessed against MC&I (Forest Plantation) was issued by Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCC) on 18th July 2014.

Shin Yang Forestry Sdn. Bhd. manages tree seedlings in nursery and research while Shin Yang Plywood manages the site maintenance, tree planting activities and tree harvesting activities at Kuala Baram tree plantation.


This Policy of Commitment defines the company's commitment towards the Malaysia Criteria and Indicators (MC&I v.2) for Forest Plantation Management Certification. This Policy will be a guideline for all levels of our employees and stakeholders in carrying out the company's business in a conscience manner.

It is our commitment to:

    1. Comply with all applicable laws, regulations and requirements related to forest management.

    2. Operate according to approved Forest Plantation Management Plan and fulfils all conditions in the Environmental Impact Assessment Agreement.

    3. Continual assessment, evaluation and improvement of forest management practices through monitoring and review.

    4. Support local communities through employment opportunities and recognize local customs & Native Customary Right as defined by regional laws.

    5. Enhance the skills, knowledge and competency of employee and local community through relevant trainings.

    6. Provide a safe working environment by adhering to occupational safety and health policy and ensure that all employees are trained in occupational safety and health.

    7. Ensure environmental degradation and pollution prevented or controlled through an effective control measures.

    8. Maintaining existing biological diversity by established the natural conservation and protection area.

    9. Ensure the timber harvesting is sustainable and adhering to low impact harvesting methods.


The management objective of the plantation is to enable a continuous supply of timber for downstream processing activities (plywood, veneer and particle board) especially for Shin Yang Group of wood processing mills. There is also the global sentiment to source for timber from planted forest instead of natural forest. Planted forest have the advantages of planned production, uniformity of logs and automation in the processing mills. They will also help to reduce harvesting pressure on the remnant natural forests.

Besides that, forest management also have the following objective:

    • Optimum utilization of forest resources while ensuring ecological function

    • Regulation of harvest on a sustainable yield basis

    • To reduce environmental impact

    • To promote natural forest conservation, restoration and enhancement within FPMU

    • To maintain or enhance the long-term social and economic well-being of workers and local communities


The tree species planted in our project area have generally a short rotation period of 7-12 years. These species will be suitable for wide range of purposes such as sawn timber, plywood's core materials, veneer materials for Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) and Laminated Veneer Board (LVB); or wood pulps for the paper industry.

We put strong emphasis on training, implementation, monitoring and assessment of Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) to reduce erosion and environmental impacts, maintain sustainability and optimum yield.  

We are also aiming to enrich the project area's natural habitats by protecting the existing ecosystem of the forest, and by enhancing its natural regeneration by protecting the core zones and planting more indigenous tree species resulted from our Research and Development (R&D) activities at our forest tree nursery facility.



5.1  Growing timber stock
The forest in license area is a mixed peat swamps forest that has been disturbed by previous logging and natural disturbance. Due to such activities, there are only limited large diameter trees which is too small for harvest or has no economic value, therefore the company decided to plant medium-sized fast-growing trees by mixed tree species with both exotic and indigenous species that are of an average cropping cycle of 7-10 years or more for specific species.  


5.2 Non-timber growing stock
Non-timber product such as rattan, bamboo, palm and wild vegetable and fruits are not available at the FPMU.


5.3 Protected timber stock
Few protected species found in the FPMU during HCVF assessment such as Piang, Alan bunga, etc. They are listed as ERT species because of the threat of loss of its habitats and population.


No environmental limitation within the FPMU area has been identified. 


83% of the FPMU area has been planted and the other 17% protected area reserved for conservation purpose. We have set the following as Protected Areas to achieve our Management Objectives. SBR, wildlife resources, HCVFs, research plots and other environmentally sensitive areas are demarcated and signboard posted for protection, and scheduled patrolling is applicable.


There are two longhouses - Rh. Mekal is located in neighbouring oil palm and Rh. Kasi is located just next to the tree plantation site. Their main religion is Christian, with only one family is Muslim.



9.1 Choice of species
The FPMU area will be established with a combination of trees species both exotic and indigenous. The predominant species established are Paraserianthes falcataria and Acacia mangium. Other species are consisted of minor ones such as Eucalyptus spp., Azadirachta excelsa etc.

9.2 Nursery practice
Nursery practice has been standardized after repeated research, and to be applied to the various species. The annual production target is set based on the planting target plus allowance for nursery mortality, culling rejects, and mortality during transit and after planting in the field.

9.3 Site Preparation
The company is using both manual and mechanical site preparation depending on suitability to the site.



10.1 Thinning
According to the growth of the planted forest, liberation thinning will be applied to remove inferior trees and to provide more growing space for better trees to grow at their maximum rate, and results in shorter rotation and better yield.

10.2 Pest and disease control
To grow healthy seedlings and planted forest, pest and disease control will ne applied for both at nursery and planting site. For this purpose, the control method is not relying on pesticide alone, but also by environmental control for the plants.

10.3 Weed control
Weeds, climbers and low shrubs which are part of the indigenous ground covers have importance to keep the ground surface moist and healthy condition. Basically scheduled, but when necessary also, weed control will be applied to the planting site especially to remove climber species.



11.1 Harvesting operation prescription

11.1.1 Cutting rules
Streambank Buffer Reserves (SBR) "“ Permanent waterways with continuous flow of water throughout the year will be protected by a buffer zone and no activities will be permitted in this area. Reduced impact logging procedure "“ The management of forest plantation takes cognizance of the "Reduced Impact Logging, Guidelines/Procedures for Ground Based Harvesting System Using Tractor" is applicable to its harvest operation.

11.1.2 Cutting limit
The downstream processing mill for plywood and veneer are equipped with the latest technology which enables to peel up to very small diameter logs. Therefore, the company is proposing cutting limit greater than 10cm at diameter of breast height (DBH).

11.1.3 Harvesting system
A clear cut system will be applied for planted trees, while protected areas are strictly prohibited from any harvesting activities. Harvesting system used is Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) concept for ground based harvesting system using excavator, manual chainsaw and tractors to minimize impact to the soil and water value.

11.1.4 Harvesting rotation
Based on the present research data available from PSPs and proposed diameter for cutting limit (minimum 10cm DBH), the growth rates and rotation length for harvesting will be commenced at 10 years after planting.

11.1.5 Annual allowable cut (AAC)
The allowable cut is based on area control. The Annual Cutting Area (ACA) of FPMU is 71 ha/year.


The company has set up an R&D department to cater to needs such as monitoring the growth of planted trees. Proper yield permanent sample plots (PSPs) have been set up to monitor performance of trees, growth rate of the planted forest and yield of all forest products harvested so that useful data could be procured for estimates of stocking size, quality and stand volume of the plantation. The result of the PSPs assessment show the growth rate of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria as approximately 2-3cm/year in DBH and 1-3m/year in height.



13.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report
EIA for Kuala Baram Tree Plantation was prepared by Ecosol Consultancy Sdn Bhd, and was approved by Natural Resources and Environmental Board (NREB) Sarawak dated on 21 May 2012.

13.2 Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR)
The environmental monitoring and review have been done by Ecosol Consultancy Sdn. Bhd. and the report is submitted to NREB quarterly. The monitoring is including water course quality monitoring.

13.3 NREB verification and inspection visits of the FPMU.
NREB always carry out routine environmental inspection on the compliance to the Terms and Conditions of the EIA Report Approval document for the project area.

13.4 Patrolling
Scheduled patrolling has been developed to monitor the condition of FPMU.


The guidelines used for identification and protection of endangered, rare and threatened species of forest flora and fauna, including features of special biological interest are:

a. Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1998

b. Sarawak Plant Red List

c. A Master Plan for Wildlife in Sarawak 1996

d. HCVF Toolkit for Malaysia

e. Orang utan strategic and action plan

f.  The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species at

Sign boards has been prepared and installed at strategic locations. The entry to FPMU area shall be limited to the unauthorized person. A schedule for monthly patrols for the year has been developed to control fire, hunting, fishing and collecting activities in forest plantation areas.

DF Circular No. 6/99 stipulated that:

1.  Employees of the Timber Companies are not to hunt in the licensed areas while they are in the employ of the company.

2.  Company vehicles are not to be used for hunting or for carrying meat of wild animals.

3.  Selling of wild animals or meat of wild animals is not allowed in the licensed area.

4.  Feeder roads are to be closed after the final block inspection to prevent further entry of vehicles.


Identification of the protection areas in the FPMU area is carried out based on guidelines High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) Toolkit for Malaysia. Kuala Baram assessment was carried out by Sarawak Forestry Corporation on August 2014. The assessment reported some noteworthy HCV attributes present in the plantation area and its surrounding. There were signs of Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) flora and fauna ( HCV 1.2 present) observed during the assessment. A total of six Borneo endemic plant species were recorded in the study. Areas for critical temporal use were also identified to be present (1.4). However HCV 1.1, 2 and 3 were not present. The HCV was partially present as HCV 4.1 and 4.2 were not present. The tree plantation and its surrounding is a fire prone area and the forest managers are aware of the hazard of forest fires (HCV 4.3) present.

         The HCV report recommended few specific measures to protect, demarcate and manage HCV sites

    • The Tree Plantation's no hunting policy should be continued and enforced. The Tree Plantation roads are not to be use by the company's vehicles to transport wild animals or wild meat.

    • Regular patrolling conducted to discourage and apprehend.

    • Signages and fencing can be erected at certain areas to inform and stop illegal entries.

    • Enrichment planting of fruit trees and plants is encouraged.

    • Wallows are not allowed to be disturbed.

    • Compliance with the EIA recommendations and monitoring on fire hazard management and mitigation practices is necessary.


There are two communities namely Rh Mekal and Rh Kasi. Rh Mekal is located at the southern corner of neighbouring Forescom OPP, 600m from the Northen block of the FPMU. Rh Kasi is located next to the FPMU. Some other settlements along both sides of Btg Baram and upstream of the areas are located more than 3 km away from the areas. No community issues have been arisen between the communities and this project.



17.1  Liaison committee responsibility

Liaison committee responsibility is as stated below:

  1. Issues over tenure claims and use rights.
  2. Conflicts pertaining to the recognition of the legal and customary rights of the local communities.
  3. Measures on threatened or diminished resources or tenure rights of the local communities.
  4. Protect the sites with special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance to the local people.
  5. Long term social and economic well-being of forest workers and local communities.
  6. Grievances resolution and provide fair compensation in case of loss or damage affecting the legal customary rights or livelihoods of local people.
  7. The use of the forests' multiple products and services to ensure economic viability with the environmental and social benefits.



18.1  Collaboration
Some studies will be parts of our research activities in this tree plantation project. Shin Yang Forestry Sdn Bhd with collaboration of Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) and University Putra Malaysia (UPM) under MoU signed in 2012. Further research will be carried out for technical development of tropical tree plantation. The planned studies are as follows:

    • Silviculture scheme and yield
    • To determine the best harvesting time
    • Biological disease control without agrochemicals

Other items in MoU:

    • Permanent Sample Plot management
    • Biological control and protection
    • Study on carbon foot print
    • Research and Development on Nursery, Tree Plantation and Reforestation
    • Nursery practice and planted forest establishment
    • Plant propagation techniques
    • Biological control and protection

18.2   In house
Nursery which is located at Kuala Baram, Miri will be the R&D centre of Shin Yang Forestry Sdn Bhd for tree plantation projects at Kuala Baram, LPF 0017, LPF 0018 and LPF 0019.


Annual budget is including the expenses overall for plantation development (Nursery, Land Preparation & Site Planting), infrastructure, conservation, research and development, forest maintenance and social community.


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Map 1: FPMU resources base including protected areas, planned management activities and land ownership.
(Click here to enlarge the image)

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