LPF0017, Long Lama (in-part) FPMU
(Version 02)


lpf0017 longlama 1

Figure 1: Location of Long Lama LPF 0017 (in-part) FPMU

Kejin Forest Plantation Management Unit (FPMU) is a part of Long Lama Estate which has been granted under License for Planted Forest LPF/0017 by the Director of Forest, Sarawak for a period of 60 years from 19 November 1999 to 18 November 2059, managed by Shin Yang Forestry Sdn. Bhd. Kejin FPMU is located in Long Lama, east bank of Batang Baram in Baram District, Marudi, about 45km south of Marudi town. The FPMU is covering 42,236 ha as a part of LPF/0017.

Most of the area is heavily logged over forest under logging license T/0370 and T/0191. Land use of the areas adjacent to the FPMU is mostly Oil Palm Plantations and Timber logging licenses. About 60% from the total FPMU area is plantable, while the balance of 40% is reserved in situ for shifting agriculture, terrain IV, buffer zone, green belts, water catchment areas and conservation area as shown in table 1 below:

Table 1: Plantable land within the FPMU area


Size (ha)

Plantable Area

Un-plantable Buffer/Green Belts


Coupe 1A




Coupe 2A




Coupe 3A




Coupe 4A




Coupe 5A




Coupe 6A




Water catchment


Shifting Agriculture


Whirl Bird Nest Area






Shin Yang Forestry Sdn. Bhd. manages tree seedlings in nursery, tree planting and tree harvesting activities at Kuala Baram tree plantation, LPF0017 (Kejin FMU), LPF0018 (Penyuan FMU) and LPF0019 (Masama FMU) Site. This Policy of Commitment defines the company’s commitment towards the Malaysia Criteria and Indicators (MC&I .V2) for Forest Plantation Management Certification. This Policy will be a guideline for all levels of our employees and stakeholders in carrying out the company’s business in a conscience manner.

It is our commitment to:

  1. Comply with all applicable laws, regulations and requirements related to forest management.
  2. Operate according to approved Forest Plantation Management Plan and fulfils all conditions in the Environmental Impact Assessment Agreement.
  3. Continual assessment, evaluation and improvement of forest management practices through monitoring and review.
  4. Support local communities through employment opportunities and recognize local customs & Native Customary Right as defined by regional laws.
  5. Enhance the skills, knowledge and competency of employee and local community through relevant trainings.
  6. Provide a safe working environment by adhering to occupational safety and health policy and ensure that all employees are trained in occupational safety and health.
  7. Ensure environmental degradation and pollution prevented or controlled through an effective control measures.
  8. Maintaining existing biological diversity by established the natural conservation and protection area.
  9. Ensure the timber harvesting is sustainable and adhering to low impact harvesting methods.


The management objective of the plantation is to enable a continuous supply of timber for downstream processing activities (plywood, veneer, particle board, biomass fuel etc.) especially for Shin Yang Group of wood processing mills. There is also the global sentiment to source for timber from planted forest instead of from natural forests. Planted forests have the advantage compared to traditional natural forest logging on faster growth, better production efficiency, uniformity of logs, activities only in confined “Tree Farm” to relief the pressure against remaining natural tropical forest, and automation in the processing mills. They will also help to reduce harvesting pressure on the remnant natural forests.

Besides that, forest management also have the following objective:

  • Optimum utilization of forest resources while ensuring ecological function
  • Regulation of harvest on a sustainable yield basis
  • To reduce environmental impact
  • Protection, conservation, restoration and enhancement of remnant natural forest
  • Regeneration of the forest and improvement of the stocking of useful species with sustainable silvicultural methods.
  • To maintain or enhance the long-term social and economic well-being of workers and local communities.



4.1 Geology soil
The dominant soils are the Merit soils which make up about 49.31% or 32,139 ha of the total area and the Kapit soils which cover another 30.36% or 19,788 ha of the area. The Bemang/ Bekenu soils which are confined to the riverine areas make up 8.54% or 5,565 ha while the Merit/ Kapit soils takes up 3.93% or 2,562 ha of the site. The balance of 7.86% or 5,124 ha is made up of the Bekenu/ Merit soils, Kapit/ Silantek soils, and Meluan soils. The site is therefore dominated by the Red Yellow Podozolic soils of the Merit series and skeletal soils of Kapit series.

4.2  Growing timber stock
The forest in licence area is a hill mixed Dipterocarp forest that has been logged over and developed for agricultural activities. Due to such activities, there are only limited large diameter trees which is too little for harvesting or has no economic value, therefore the company decided to plant medium-sized fast-growing trees with mix of both exotic and indigenous species with an average cropping cycle of 7-10 years, or more for specific species.

4.3  Non-timber growing stock
Non-timber product such as rattan, bamboo, and wild vegetable and fruits are still available at Long Lama (in-part) FPMU. These non-timber products are reserved for local community use.

The FPMU site is undulating to hilly condition with slope of 6° to more than 30°. This terrain factor causes difficulty to access some area during the wet season and the steep terrain has high potential to soil erosion during heavy rain. Average rainy days are about 169 days per year and this limitation affects our operation.

The FPMU site is intensively logged over forests of the former hill dipterocarp forest. Active logging is still going on in the project site. There are evidences of localized shifting cultivation along logging roads by previous logging workers.

Development of the plantation involves several stages such as project site investigation, nursery establishment, plantation buildings and amenities, land preparation, construction of infrastructure, field establishment, maintenance and abandonment and replanting.

There are one Long Lama town and 9 settlements that include Uma Akeh, Sg. Dua, Uma Bawang, Long Tepen, Long Puak, Long Laput, Long Miri, Long Pilah and Long Lunyim along Batang Baram. Most of the settlers are Kayan except for the Kenyah of Uma Akeh and Penan of Long Tepen and Long Lunyim. They speak their own language, practice distinctive social-cultural systems and carry out various economic activities.

The development of the plantation is expected to generate long term benefits such as employment opportunities and business for the local people especially people in the Baram area. Most of them used to work in logging camps and as farmer. Such local people will be given priority to work for the plantation if they are willing based on their qualification, performance and expertise. The income earned from working in the project area will further supplement the family income. It will also help upgrading the quality of life. Upon completion and production, the plantation will contribute towards enhancing the State’s economy.


The forest plantation management is committed to Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) which is the process of managing forest plantation site to achieve one or more clearly specified objectives of management with regard to the production of a continuous flow of desired forest products and services without undue reduction in its inherent values and future productivity and without undue undesirable effects on the physical and social environment

8.1  Plantation establishment

8.1.1 Choice of species
The FPMU area will be established with a combination of exotic and indigenous tree species. The predominant species established are Paraserianthes falcataria and Acacia mangium. Minor species include Neolamarckia cadamba, Acacia auriculiformis, Duabanga molucana, Eucalyptus spp. etc. For such minor species, small scale trial will be established and close monitoring will be undertaken to evaluate its potential and adverse impacts. If proven successful to meet the Company’s needs in short rotation, its establishment will be undertaken in a larger scale.

8.1.2  Nursery practice
Nursery practice has been standardized after repeated research, and to be applied to the various species. The annual production targets is set based on the planting target plus allowance for nursery mortality, culling rejects, and mortality during transit and after planting in the field.

8.1.3  Site Preparation
The company is using both manual and mechanical site preparation after selection of suitable sites that exclude steep terrain, HCVs, riparian buffer zones and other protected areas. Minimum slash and burn method also will be applied in a minimum scale with prior permission from Natural Resource and Environment Board (NREB) to control the weeds and green debris. Burning will enhance initial growth rates of the planted trees through the release of nutrients to soil.

8.2  Silviculture

8.2.1 Thinning
Some areas will also undergo liberation thinning to provide more growing space for better trees to grow at their maximum rate, yielding the next harvest in the shortest time as possible.

8.2.2  Pest and disease control
The control of pest and disease is applied for both Nursery and Planting site with minimum chemical usage.

8.2.3  Weeds control
Weeds, climbers and low shrubs which are part of the indigenous ground covers will be slashed back when necessary.

8.3 Harvesting Plan
Harvesting will be commenced at 7 to 10 years after planting, followed by successive rotation planting for the next 10-years cycle. Harvesting will be carried out by combined Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) system consisted by cable yarding and ground-based operation using log fisher, tower yarder, tractor, excavator, forwarder etc.

Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) guidelines/procedures will be applied in this harvesting operation. The objectives of implementing these reduced and low impact harvesting systems is to reduce environmental impacts especially on the soil and water values.

The planning of road construction, maintenance, skid trails layout, landing points construction will be carried out as a part of pre-harvesting activities to minimize soil disturbance and to protect streams and waterways by referring to the:

  • Guidelines for Forest Road Layout and Construction
  • Procedures for Inspection of Harvesting Areas
  • Guidelines/Procedures for Reduced and Low Impact Harvesting Systems, 1999.

8.3.1 Harvesting operation prescription Cutting rules
Streambank Buffer Reserves (SBR)
Permanent waterways with continuous flow of water throughout the year will be protected by a riparian buffer zone where no activities will be permitted. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) procedure - The management of forest plantation takes cognizance of the “Reduce Impact Logging Guidelines/Procedures for Ground Based Harvesting System Using Tractor” applicable to its successive cycle harvest operation. Cutting limit
The downstream processing mill for plywood and veneer is equipped with the latest technology which is enables to peel up to very small logs. Therefore, the company is proposing cutting limit above 10cm at diameter breast high (DBH). Harvesting system
Harvesting system engaged are RIL and Cable Yarding system to reduce impact especially to the soil and water value, and minimize damage to the residual stand. As fast growing pioneer species need a full light condition for its good growth, that is different from natural tropical tree species, clear felling system will be applied. Protected areas such as Terrain Class IV and Riparian Buffer Zone are strictly prohibited and protected from any disturbance activities. Harvesting Rotation
Based on the present research data available from PSPs and proposed diameter cutting limit (minimum 10cm DBH), the growth rates and rotation length for harvesting will be commenced at 10 years after planting in normal case. Yield regulation
The indicative forest plantation yields for species planted at the FPMU is based on area assignation and a combined system consisted of result of the data collection and analysis of Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) on growth performance, and actual harvested logs inventory to supplement the data accuracy  Annual allowable cut (AAC)
The allowable cut is based on area control, in accordance with the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) of the licensed area. The Annual Cutting Area (ACA) is 3700ha/year.

8.4  Tree planting and Re-planting
In the FPMU, tree planting and successive re-planting will be repeated to maximize the land use efficiency and minimize adverse environmental and ecological impacts. From the seedlings production until tree plantation establishment, environmental friendly methods are engaged such as;

  1. Minimum pesticide usage.
  2. High efficiency production and continuous improvement
  3. Minimum chemical input into the forest plantation areas.
  4. Environmental control for optimum growth enhancement.

The major species planted in FPMU is Paraserianthes falcataria and Acacia mangium.


The company has set up an R&D department to cater to needs such as monitoring the growth of planted trees. Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) have been set up to monitor performance of trees, growth rate of the planted forest and yield of all forest products harvested so that useful data could be procured for estimates of stocking size, quality and stand volume of the plantation. The result of the PSPs assessment shows that the growth rate of fast growing high quality species is about 2-3 cm per year in DBH, and 2-3m per year in height growth.

9.1  Result of monitoring and assessment

  1. Yield of forest products
    The yield from planted forest is limited to timber products only. The volume is under control within Yield Regulation.

  2. Growth rate of the planted forest
    Generally, growth of the planted forest consisted of fast growing high quality species is about 2-3 cm per year in DBH, and 2-3m per year in height growth.
    The growth is monitored at PSP locations established within the FPMU.

  3. Composition and observed changes in the flora and fauna
    Due to its nature of License for Planted Forest (LPF), plantable area will be basically cleared except protection areas and/or attributes such as riparian buffer zones, HCVs, Terrain IV, protected trees etc. Therefore some of natural species in the plantable area seems missing from the site, although in protected areas, species genetic resources can be conserved within the FPMU area, and it is expected to be utilized in future.
    As for wildlife, animals still can be seen such as monkeys, hornbills, eagles, squirrels, Raja Brook’s Birdwing, deers etc.

  4. Cost and productivity of forest management
    Cost and productivity, operation efficiency analysis has been calculated and recorded for continuous improvement purpose.



10.1 Environmental Impact Assessment Report
The Environmental Impact Assessment report for the LPF0017 forest Plantation "Environmental Impact Assessment " was approved by NREB Sarawak [(9) NREB/6-11/78 dated 7th June 2000].

10.2   Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR)
The environmental monitoring and review is done by consultancy company quarterly. The monitoring includes water course quality monitoring. The report is submitted to the NREB quarterly.

10.3   NREB verification and inspection visits of the FPMU.
The NREB regularly carries out routine environmental inspection on the compliance to the Terms and Conditions of the EIA Report Approval document for the project area.


All flora species along stream buffer zones was conserved with standard width that suggested by EIA. Protected areas within FPMU include wildlife corridor, terrain IV, HCVs area, natural forest etc. too.

The guidelines used for identification and protection of endangered, rare and threatened species of forest flora and fauna within FPMU, including features of special biological interest are:

  1. Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1998
  2. Sarawak Plant Red List
  3. A Master Plan for Wildlife in Sarawak 1996
  4. HCVF Toolkit for Malaysia
  5. Orangutan Strategic Action Plan: Trans-boundary
  6. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species at

Sign boards have been prepared and placed at the main entrances of sensitive sites. Any entry to the FPMU area shall be limited for authorized persons only.

A schedule for monthly patrols for the year has been developed to control hunting, fishing and collecting activities in forest plantation areas.

DF Circular No. 6/99 stipulated that:

  1. Employees of the Timber Companies are not to hunt in the licensed areas while they are in the employ of the company.
  2. Company vehicles are not to be used for hunting or for carrying meat of wild animals.
  3. Selling of wild animals or meat of wild animals is not allowed in the licensed area.
  4. Feeder roads are to be closed after the final block inspection to prevent further entry of vehicles.


HCV 1.1 was not present in plantation area. There are signs of Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) flora and fauna (HCV 1.2 present) observed during the assessment. There are 3 endemic fauna species and 10 endemic flora species in the study sites (HCV 1.3). Areas for critical temporal use were also identified to be present (HCV 1.4)

Although the forest landscape within the study areas has been fragmented by previous logging and plantation development activities, good forest for species diversity, animal refuges and catchment protection, etc. are still available (HCV 2). The limestone forest which located at western and northern parts of the Study Area have been reserved by the Licensee for conservation purpose (HCV3). The ecological values had been identified for:

a) safeguarding watersheds such as buffer zones (HCV 4.1),

b) controlling soil erosion such as terrain IV within coupe 5A (HCV 4.2) and

c) destructive fires (HCV 4.3)

The natural resource in proposed conservation areas will cater to the needs of local communities. The burial ground along Sg. Puan are present (HCV 5& 6).

Management recommendation by the Consultant:

  1. Retain the pulau, river buffer / wildlife corridors
  2. Avoid cutting of protected trees
  3. Follow DID/NREB guidelines
  4. Establish security post at the entrance of the plantation camp
  5. Create a buffer for each salt lick
  6. Establish and maintain river buffers/ wildlife corridors
  7. Prohibit plantation staff and worker from hunting
  8. Environmental awareness programmes for staff and worker
  9. Establish river buffer/ wildlife corridors to connect all fragmented habitats
  10. Preserve limestone forest and protect nine caves located to western and northern parts of the study area
  11. Keep road and skid trail density to a minimum to minimize environmental disturbance/damage
  12. Adopt practices such as directional felling near river
  13. Regular consultation and dialogues with the Penan and Kayan people who are affected by the forest plantation
  14. Identify and reserve the burial site along Sg. Puan together with the lical Penans

Several monitoring activities suggested by Consultant:

  1. Wildlife corridors and riparian buffers established and maintained
  2. Warning signs on hunting and posters on protected plants and animals put up
  3. Number of outsiders into the area decreased
  4. Sale of wildlife meat in the camp controlled/decreased
  5. Environmental education programmes initiated
  6. Forested areas around limestone caves for bird’s nest harvesting are maintaines and excluded from plantation activities
  7. Wildlife corridors and riparian buffers established and maintained
  8. Village consultation continued
  9. Burial site along Sg. Puan preserved



13.1 Liaison committee responsibility
Liaison committee responsibility is as below:

  1. Issues over tenure claims and use rights.
  2. Conflicts pertaining to the recognition of the legal and customary rights of the local communities.
  3. Measures threaten or diminish resources or tenure rights of the local communities.
  4. Protected the sites with special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance to the local people.
  5. Long term social and economic well-being of forest workers and local communities.
  6. Grievances and provide fair compensation in case of loss or damage affecting the legal customary rights or livelihoods of local people.
  7. The use of the forests’ multiple products and services to ensure economic viability with the environmental and social benefits.



14.1 Collaboration
An MoU was siged in 2012 between Shin Yang Forestry Sdn Bhd and Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) and University Putra Malaysia (UPM) on the following collaborations. Further research will be carried out for technical development of tropical tree plantation. The planned studies are as follows:

  • Silviculture scheme and yield
  • To determine the best harvesting time
  • Biological disease control without agrochemicals

Other items in the MoU:

  • Permanent Sample Plot management
  • Biological control and protection
  • Study on carbon foot print
  • Research and Development on Nursery, Tree Plantation and Reforestation
  • Nursery practice and planted forest establishment
  • Plant propagation techniques
  • Biological control and protection

14.2  In house
Nursery located at Kuala Baram, Miri is the R&D centre of Shin Yang Forestry Sdn Bhd for LPF 0017, LPF 0018 and LPF 0019. Various researches are undertaken continuously.


Annual budget includes the expenses of overall operations and activities namely; Nursery, Land preparation, Planting & Supply, Silviculture, Harvesting, Conservation & Monitoring, Transport & Infrastructure including social program, Amenities for workers, Safety, Staff training, research development etc.

Figure 2: The forest resources base including protected aread, planned management activities and land ownership

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